Your Brain on Trust: Why We are Hardwired to Rely On Others

2018-12-0218:07:05 评论 858 views

原文

Trust is a tricky business. On the one hand, it’s a prerequisite for many worthwhile things: child care, relationships, friendships—even just eating at a restaurant. On the other hand, putting your faith in the wrong place often carries a high price.

信任是一件棘手的事。 一方面,它是很多有价值的事情的前提:儿童保育,人际关系,友谊 - 甚至只是在餐厅吃饭。 另一方面,把你的信仰放在错误的地方通常会带来很高的代价。

Words and Phrases:
tricky adj. 狡猾的; (形势、工作等)复杂的; 机警的; 微妙的;
prerequisite 美 [priˈrɛkwɪzɪt] n. 先决条件,前提,必要条件;
worthwhile adj. 值得做的; 值得花时间的; 有价值的; 合算;
restaurant [ˈrestrɑnt] n. 饭店; 餐馆; 饭馆; 菜馆;
faith n. 信用,信任; 宗教信仰; 忠诚; 宗教;
On the one hand, 一方面...
On the other hand, 另一方面...

Then why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good. When people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin, a hormone that produces pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instinct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and prompts humans to connect with one another. Swiss scientists have found that exposure to this hormone puts us in a trusting mood: In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; those subjects were willing to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers in a game than were their counterparts who inhaled a placebo.

那为什么我们相信呢? 好吧,因为感觉很好。 当人们信任个人或机构时,他们的大脑会释放催产素,这种激素产生令人愉悦的感觉并触发放牧本能,导致绵羊聚集在一起以确保安全并促使人类彼此联系。 瑞士科学家发现,接触这种激素使我们处于一种信任的情绪:在一项研究中,研究人员将催产素喷射到一半受试者的鼻子中; 那些受试者愿意在游戏中向陌生人提供比吸入安慰剂的同行更多的钱。

Words and Phrases:
individual adj. 个人的; 独特的; 个别的; n. 个人; 个体;
institution n. (大学、银行等规模大的)机构; 惯例,制度,规定,建立; 社会事业机构; <口>名人,名物;
oxytocin n. 后叶催产素(脑下垂体后叶荷尔蒙的一种);
hormone n. 荷尔蒙; 激素;
pleasurable adj. 令人快乐的,愉快的,舒适的; n. 快乐;
instinct n. 本能,天性; 冲动; 天资,天才; adj. 深深地充满着;
sheep n. 羊,绵羊; 胆小鬼; 易受人摆布的人; 缺乏主见或轻易盲从的人;
flock n. 兽群,鸟群; 群众; 棉束; 大堆,大量;
exposure n. 暴露; 揭发; 公开; (商品等的)展出;
mood n. 心情; 语气; 气氛; 坏心境;
spray vt.& vi. 喷; 喷射; n. 喷雾; 喷雾器; 浪花; (用作装饰的)小树枝;
lend vt. 把…借给; 贷(款); 贡献,给予; 适于;vi. 增加; 增添; 给…增加; 给予;
counterpart n. 配对物; 副本; 相对物; 极相似的人或物;
inhaled vt.& vi. 吸入; 〈非〉狼吞虎咽; 吸气;
placebo n. 安慰剂; 宽心话; 为死者所诵的晚祷词; (试验药物用的)无效对照剂;

Lucky for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may protect us. A study by researchers from the psychology department at Concordia University in Montreal found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate between a credible person and a disingenuous one. Sixty toddlers were each introduced to an adult tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask, “What’s in here?” before looking into the container, smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited to peek inside. Half of them found a toy; the other half discovered the container was empty—and realized the tester had fooled them.

幸运的是,我们也有第六感可以保护我们的不诚实行为。 蒙特利尔康考迪亚大学心理学系的研究人员进行的一项研究发现,年仅14个月的儿童可以区分可靠的人和不诚实的人。 将六十只幼儿分别引入装有塑料容器的成年测试者。 在看着容器,微笑着,惊叹道,“哇!”之后,测试者会问,“这里有什么?”然后邀请每个主题进入内部。 他们中有一半找到了玩具; 另一半发现容器是空的 - 并且意识到测试人员已经欺骗了他们。

Words and Phrases:
dishonesty n. 不正直,不诚实; 狡猾,阴险; 不诚实的行为; 欺诈;
psychology n. 心理学; 心理特点; 心理状态; 心理影响;
credible adj. 可信的,可靠的; (因看似可能成功而)可接受的;
disingenuous [ˌdɪsɪnˈdʒɛnjuəs] adj. 不真诚的,不坦率的;
toddler [ˈtɑdlə(r)] n. 蹒跚行走的人; 幼童装; 学步的幼儿;
adult n. 成年的人或动物;
toy n. 玩具,玩物; 小装饰品; 无实用价值的东西;
fool n. 愚人,傻瓜; 受骗者; 有癖好的人; 受愚弄的人;vt. 愚弄,欺骗; 浪费,虚度; 闹笑话; 游手好闲;vi. 开玩笑; 欺骗; 戏弄;adj. 愚蠢的; 傻的;

Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were willing to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. In contrast, only five of the 30 children paired with the “unreliable” tester participated in a follow-up activity.

在没有被欺骗的孩子中,大多数人愿意与测试人员合作学习新技能,证明他们信任他的领导。 相比之下,与“不可靠”测试者配对的30名儿童中只有5名参加了后续活动。

Words and Phrases:
In contrast, 相比之下...

出题

Trust is a tricky business. On the one hand, it's a necessary condition _____(1) many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. On the other hand, putting your _____(2)in the wrong place often carries a high _____(3).
_____(4), why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good. _____(5) people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin, a hormone that _____(6) pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and prompts humans to _____(7) with one another. Swiss Scientists have found that exposure _____(8) this hormone puts us in a trusting _____(9): In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their _____(10) who inhaled something else.
_____(11) for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may _____(12) us. A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate _____(13) a credible person and a dishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each _____(14) to an adult tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask, “What's in here?” before looking into the container, smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited to look _____ (15). Half of them found a toy; the other half _____ (16)the container was empty-and realized the tester had _____(17) them.
Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were _____ (18) to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. _____ (19), only five of the 30 children paired with the "_____(20)"tester participated in a follow-up activity.
1. A.on B.like C.for D.from
2. A.faith B.concern C.attention D.interest
3. A.benefit B.debt C.hope D.price
4. A.Therefore B.Then C.Instead D.Again
5. A.Until B.Unless C.Although D.When
6. A.selects B.produces C.applies D.maintains
7. A.consult B.compete C.connect D.compare
8. A.at B.by C.of D.to
9. A.context B.mood C.period D.circle
10. A.counterparts B.substitutes C.colleagues D.supporters
11. A.Funny B.Lucky C.Odd D.Ironic
12. A.monitor B.protect C.surprise D.delight
13. A.between B.within C.toward D.over
14. A.transferred B.added C.introduced D.entrusted
15. A.out B.back C.around D.inside
16. A.discovered B.proved C.insisted D.remembered
17. A.betrayed B.wronged C.fooled D.mocked
18. A.forced B.willing C.hesitant D.entitled
19. A.In contrast B.As a result C.On the whole D.For instance
20. A.inflexible B.incapable C.unreliable D.unsuitable
1.【答案】C
【解析】该题选择的是介词,与后面的many worthwhile things一块做后置定语修饰前面的condition,表明对于许多重要事情来说是一个必要的条件。而A选项from(来自于),C选项like(像)D选项on(关于)均语义不搭。
2.【答案】A
【解析】此处考察语义一致和对上下文辨析的问题。该空是做put的宾语,通过前面的On the one hand, it's a necessary condition _____(1) many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面,信任对许多重要事情来说是必要条件,比如照看孩子,友谊等);on the other hand 可以得知该题仍然是在讲述关于主题 trust的问题,所以只有faith(信任)最合适。而B选项concern(关心,关注),C选项attention(注意),D选项interest(兴趣,利益)均不符题意。
3.【答案】D
【解析】此处考察词义辨析。前文说到putting your _____in the wrong place often carries a high _____(把……放在错误的地方通常会带来巨大的……),可以知道该空肯定也是填贬义,但肯定不能是debt债务这种具体含义,所以只能选price,并且carries a high price也指付出高昂的代价。
4.【答案】B
【解析】此题考察上下文逻辑关系。上一段分析的是信任的利弊,该段所指内容_____, why do we trust at all? (我们为什么会要信任?)所以采用了递进关系,进一步说明信任的具体内容。只有D选项then(然后,那么)最符合语义搭配。而A选项again(再次)表示强调;B选项instead(然而)表转折;而C选项therefore(因此)表结果,均不符合。
5. 【答案】D
【解析】此处再一次考察逻辑关系。该空_____ people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin,a hormone(___人们信任一个人或者一个机构,大脑都会释放一种荷尔蒙),只有when(当……时)符合上下文语境和逻辑语境。
6. 【答案】B
【解析】该题是考察定语从句的动宾搭配问题。上一句说当人们产生信任感,大脑就会产生一种荷尔蒙,a hormone that _____(6) pleasurable feelings这个that就是定语从句,指这种荷尔蒙能_____令人愉悦的感觉,只能是produce 最符合语境。
7.【答案】C
【解析】考察词义辨析。该空所填为动词,并且要求与之后的with形成搭配。and triggers the herding instruct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and prompts humans to _____with one another. 说明这种荷尔蒙能够引发一种群居本能,这种本能能让羊群聚在一起,and的后面的内容也与前面的flock together同义复现。所以只有connect最符合语境。
8. 【答案】D
【解析】该题考察固定搭配。与exposure to构成固定搭配的关系。表示“接触”
9. 【答案】B
【解析】该题考察上下文语义。上文中说到这种荷尔蒙会给人带来一种愉悦的情绪,通过这个结论,可以得出这种荷尔蒙能让人有让人信任的情绪/心绪。只有mood是最合适的答案。
10.【答案】A
【解析】此处仍然是考察上下文语境。上文中In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; 能从下文得知这也是只本句讲另外一组受试者。conuterparts表示对应物,对应的人。
11.【答案】B
【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系。从后文中的also可以看出前后一致的关系。前文对于这种天赋都是褒义的色彩,所以答案此时应该是lucky。
12.【答案】B
【解析】同样也是因为also,说明前后一致关系。只能选择protect.
13.【答案】A
【解析】考察固定搭配。A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate _____ a credible person and a dishonest one. 选则between 意为:14个月大的孩子能在诚实和不诚实的人之间进行区分。
14.【答案】C
【解析】考察搭配。结合原文语境,“Sixty toddlers were each__to adult tester holding a plastic container”选项C“be introduced to sth ”表示“初次认识某物。”符合原文语境。
15.【答案】D
【解析】本题考察借此搭配及词义复现。根据原文“what’s in here?”before looking into the container...Each subject was then invited to ___.” 选项D与前文所表达的in here和looking into相关。因此D为正选。
16.【答案】A
【解析】本题考察词义复现。根据语境“half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty...”这是用分好并列连接的两个句子,属于并列关系。因此,前半句讲一般的受测者在盒子里面找到了玩具,后半句在肯定其他人会怎么说。像个小分局的结构基本一直。因此本题填入的含义应该与found 含义相同。因此,A选项发现为正选。
17.【答案】C
【解析】根据本题语境,此句在破折号后面,是对前面的意思解释说明。前面提到了另一半人发现盒子是空的,并且易世达测试者对他们怎么样。既然盒子是空的,那么肯定认识到测试者是在戏弄他们,所以对此题必须要理解测试者是主语,宾语是Them 指的是受测者。主语的含义决定了谓语的含义为戏弄。因此C选项为正选。
18.【答案】B
【解析】考察搭配。根据句子结构我们可以看出逗号之前是一个介词短语,意为在所有没有被戏弄过的孩子里面,大多数的孩子在习得一种新技能的时候与测试者的合作是如何的。Demonstrating that they trusted his leadership 表明这些孩子信任他的领导。因此,既然信任他们就表示愿意合作。所B选项willing to do 构成固定搭配。
19.【答案】A
【解析】本题考察逻辑关系。根据原文语境“”only five of the 30 children paried with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity.” 通过该句中的only,可以看出与上文的“大多数”形成鲜明对比。因此,本题应该选择转折逻辑关系。A选项为正选。
20.【答案】C
【解析】本题考察词义辨析。根据原文语境;在接下来的活动中,30个孩子中有5个孩子与...样的测试者能合作,所以结合上文提到的大部分孩子信任测试者,但是5/30属于小部分,大部分测试者对应的是信任,而小部分应该对应的是不信任。因此,C选项“不可靠”为正选。

2018 I

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